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SYNTAX PASCAL PERULANGAN

Posted by Luluk Ratna Sari on 19.14
Ceritanya bikin ini syntax tu gara-gara kemarin ada someone nanya sama gua, "kamu tau ngga syntax pascal yang hasil di programnya kayak gini :
*
**
***
**** dst.
Karena gua ngga tau dan gua pengen tau, akhirnya gua nyoba-nyoba bikin sambil searching di google sama update status di facebook siapa tau aja bisa membantu, dan alhasil berhasil juga bikin syntax buat tu program.
Syntax ini termasuk ke dalam syntax pascal perulangan atau loop, atau lebih tepatnya loop bersarang . Ada tiga macam perulangan, yaitu dengan
menggunakan statemen For, While-Do dan Repeat….Until. 


1. Perulangan Positif
Merupakan perulangan dengan penghitung (counter) dari kecil ke besar. 


FOR variabel_kontrol := nilai_awal To nilai_akhir DO Statemen

untuk kontrol, nilai_awal dan nilai_akhir harus bertype integer. Bila statemen lebih dari satu perintah, maka blok perintah-perintah tersebut harus diawali dengan begin dan diakhiri dengan end.


2. Perulangan Negatif
Merupakan perulangan dengan penghitung (counter) dari besar ke kecil.


FOR variabel_kontrol := nilai_awal DownTo nilai_akhir DO Statemen


3. Perulangan Tersarang (Nested Loop)
Merupakan perulangan yang berada di dalam perulangan yang lainnnya. Perulangan yang lebih dalam akan diproses terlebih dahulu sampai habis, kemudian perulangan yang lebih luar baru dikerjakan dan begitu seterusnya.

dan ini syntax untuk program yang tadi.


program bintang;
uses wincrt;
var
baris,kolom,n: integer;
lagi:char;
begin
lagi:='y';
while lagi='y'do
begin
ClrScr;
write('jumlah baris : ');readln(n);
for baris:=1 to n do
begin
write('*');
for kolom:=2 to baris do
begin
write('*');
end;
writeln;
end;
write  ('belum puas ? (y)         :');readln(lagi);
end;
end.

dan hasilnya seperti ini :












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5

CONTOH MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS

Posted by Luluk Ratna Sari on 18.07

DEFINITION, HISTORY, FUNCTION, SORTS AND DAMAGE OF MOTHERBOARD
Compiled to complete the final task of English course





Compiler      :           Helen Pratiwi (11211241)
Jaharudin (11211246)
Luluk Ratna Sari (11211248)
Department            :           Teknik Informatika (A7)
Semester     :           2nd

 


UNIVERSITAS SERANG RAYA
Jl. KH. Amin Jasuta No. 15C Serang Banten 42115
Telp. (0254) 208266, 221101, 208208


CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
v  GENERAL

In the use of computers there are 3 components involved in intense, that are hardware (hardware), software (software), and brainware (human). There are no computer systems and computing activities that do not involve all three components.
One is the hardware that consists of several components. This one is very vital component to the computer. Processors, graphics cards, harddisk and other devices on the computer will not work without it, the name is motherboard.


v  PURPOSE

Our purpose in discussing this matter is to find components that are part of a specific motherboard to the laymen.

v  OBJECTIVES OF THIS WRITE
ü  To explain the definition of motherboard
ü  To explain history of motherboard
ü  To explain components of motherboard
ü  To explain the function of motherboard
ü  To explain the damage of motherboard


CHAPTER II


A.   DEFINITION OF MOTHERBOARD

The motherboard is the central printed circuit board, called Motherboard because this component is a major component of the series of CPUs, so the motherboard can be interpreted in the Indonesian language is the Parent Board or the main board.

As the name implies, the motherboard or mainboard is often also referred to the circuit board where all the other components are connected. The motherboard is the control center that regulates the work of all the components installed. Regulate the provision of electrical power on any PC component. There were many small pieces slot to plug in RAM(Random Access Memory) and the adapter. There plugged processors.

The motherboard is sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, planar board or, on Apple computers, the logic board.  It is also sometimes casually shortened to mobo.

As the time gone, the motherboard has a variety of development accompanied by development of its components. Where development will be very influence the mechanism of other devices.

B.   HISTORY OF MOTHERBOARD

Prior to the advent of the microprocessor, a computer was usually built in a card-cage case or mainframe with components connected by a backplane consisting of a set of slots themselves connected with wires; in very old designs the wires were discrete connections between card connector pins, but printed circuit boards soon became the standard practice.

The Central Processing Unit, memory and peripherals were housed on individual printed circuit boards which plugged into the backplate. During the late 1980s and 1990s, it became economical to move an increasing number of peripheral functions onto the motherboard. In the late 1980s, motherboards began to include single ICs (called Super I/O chips) capable of supporting a set of low-speed peripherals: keyboard, mouse, floppy disk drive, serial ports, and parallel ports. As of the late 1990s, many personal computer motherboards supported a full range of audio, video, storage, and networking functions without the need for any expansion cards at all; higher-end systems for 3D gaming and computer graphics typically retained only the graphics card as a separate component.
The early pioneers of motherboard manufacturing were Micronics, Mylex, AMI, DTK, Hauppauge, Orchid Technology, Elitegroup, DFI, and a number of Taiwan-based manufacturers.
The most popular computers such as the Apple II and IBM PC had published schematic diagrams and other documentation which permitted rapid reverse-engineering and third-party replacement motherboards. Usually intended for building new computers compatible with the exemplars, many motherboards offered additional performance or other features and were used to upgrade the manufacturer's original equipment.
Motherboard distinguished on the form and layout of the circuit is commonly called the form factor. From its shape, the motherboard are usually divided into two, namely the model of desktop (monitorplaced on the CPU) and the model tower (monitor placed next to theCPU).
While based on the form factors are used, the motherboarddistinguished on two big groups: ATX (Advanced Technology -introduced by IBM in 1984) and non ATX.


C.   COMPONENTS OF MOTHERBOARD
Modern motherboards include :
·         Microprocessor or processor is a chip that serves as the brains of a PC.
·         Power  Connector is a pin which connect the motherboard with power supply in casing of a computer
·         chipset which forms an interface between the CPU's front-side bus, main memory, and peripheral buses
·         a clock generator which produces the system clock signal to synchronize the various components
·         Southbridge
Under the southbridge chipset heatsink that there are functions to perform input and output regulation of several components such as hard drives, optical drives, USB ports, and PCI Express expansion slots. Along with the many demands of the process to be done, so now it comes with the chipset heatsink to be more stable.
·         Northbridge
Located under the Chipset heatsink fan is equipped with working with the southbridge chipset to make arrangements for a video card, processor, and memory. At this chipset has several new features that can deliver high speed ports for LAN connections and added extra PCI Express.
·         Soket and slot of processor  to plug your processor
·         Floppy and IDE connector to connect the motherboard with storage devices
·         AGP 4X slot for graphic card
·         Standby Power LED  as reminder  for turn off the system power before turn on or turn off the machine.
·         non-volatile memory chips (usually Flash ROM in modern motherboards) containing the system's firmware or BIOS
·         PCI slots
·         PS/2 Mouse Port
·         Port Paralel dan Serial
·         RJ-45 Port
·         Line in jack and out jack for audio
·         Microphone jack
·         USB 2.0 port 1 dan port 2
·         USB 2.0 port 3 dan port 4
·         Video Graphics Adapter Port (VGA)
·         Keyboard connector
·         Printer slot
·         BIOS
When you first turn on the PC, the motherboard will boot and run code that contains the Basic Input Ouput System (BIOS), BIOS will run some tests to prepare for all the hardware and then run the operating system. BIOS itself is stored in Flash RAM with a capacity of about 2-4 MB, and chanced upon this example has two motherboard BIOS.
·         Batere CMOS as stopgap of power suply.
·         Expansion slots
Some of the latest motherboards are now equipped with a mix of PCI and PCI Express expansion slot. As for the PCI Express there are usually two types, namely PCI Express 16x that serves to replace the AGP and PCI Express 1x slot is the smallest size and will be used as a substitute for the existing PCI slot for modem support and some other input device.
·         Additional Components
Some motherboard manufacturers usually equip chipset motherboard with some optional, like the Silicon Image SATA RAID, FireWire Controller Texas Instruments, and two Broadcom Gigabit LAN controller. Some chipsets can be used to support the connectivity that requires a higher transfer rate.


D.   FUNCTION OF MOTHERBOARD

The motherboard or mainboard is the board / main board where the main components such as microprocessors and memory (RAM, ROM, BIOS) chip along with other controllers. There is also SLOT Expansion is the place to put the cards additional functions to improve the facilities and capabilities required. Microprocessor mounted on the socket / slot corresponding to the shape and size of the microprocessor, such as socket 370, 470, LGA 775, socket A 462 (AMD), the socket slot I (Pentium 2 and 3). On the motherboard, microprocessor communicates with other components via a bus or data path. This bus has evolved from the bus 66, 100, 133, 200, 266, 333, 400, 500, 800 MHz. This development was to compensate for the microprocessor work faster. Expansion slot also experiencing growth. Usually table of diagram has been included on the motherboard  when you buy a CPU / Mainboard .Processor or CPU (central processing unit) has the function to read and interpret instructions, does execution, and storing the results in memory. CPU data bus that is used has a 16.32 or 64 bit.


E.   SORT OF MOTHERBOARD
Various sorts of Motherboard :
a. AMD Motherboard
b. VIA Motherboard
c. ATX Motherboard
d. INTEL Motherboard
e. ASUS Motherboard



F.    MOTHERBARD DAMAGE
If the PC is often times show an attorney-alamatan complicated, or displaying an error message, emits a continuous beep uniformly or irregularly, the PC is probably in trouble,
This type of damage can be categorized into two categories :
a)            Damage to Hardware:
Problems with hardware components need to be serious because of the difficulty of handling localized and removed without the proper tools, skills and experiences that support. Explanation will revolve around the problems that often occur along with how to cope.
b)            Damage to the Mother Board
Symptoms:
Once turned on, no display on the monitor, the indicator light (LED) on the front panel is lit, the indicator light (LED) flashing monitors, power supply fan and processor fan spins, no beep sound at the speaker.
Solution:
The first step, loose all power cables which connected to the electrical, data cable to the monitor, keyboard cable / mouse, and all the cables which connected to the CPU, then cashing out all the screw covers. In an open case please also remove other components, ie the voltage of power supply cables are connected to the motherboard, hard drive, floppy, be careful not to rush the process. So is the card attached to the Motherboard (VGA, Sound Card or other). Now attached to the motherboard just cashing it. Please check carefully the motherboard, see Chip (IC), Elko, transistor and others if there is a fire.
If there are no signs of burnt components likely motherboard is still good, but sometimes when motherboard does not work because of  program damage which contained in the BIOS,

CHAPTER III

CONCLUSION
Based on the materials we have discussed, we draw the following conclusion:
The motherboard is one component of the series of computer,components are called Motherborad because this component is a major component of the series of CPUs, so the motherboard can be interpreted in the Indonesian language is the Parent Board or the main board which has slots for other components, so that the components are connected to each other and work together well.


REFERENSES



Ø  Motherboard.pdf by Muhamad Nursalman

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